The aim of the presented work is to demonstrate the processes taking place in the European Union, which may lead to its transformation into a federal state. The studies analysed the activity of EU institutions in key selected areas of socio-economic life.
In search for legal certainty. Precedent and predictability of court decisions in the common law tradition
The institution of binding judicial precedent has been considered in the common law tradition as a factor which increases the level of predictability of court decisions. This approach may prima facie seem surprising from the perspective of a lawyer educated in continental Europe.
The position of the expert witness in the trial before Polish courts, both civil and criminal matters, is an excellent expression of our attachment to the classical definition of truth deriving from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, then shaped by St. Thomas Aquinas, and put in our modern times by Prof. Stanisław Judycki in the following sentence: “Truth is a feature of a judgment, consisting in the correspondence between the content of that judgment and the fact to which that content refers”.
This paper aims to examine and analyze the actual behavior of subjects of the international legal order. Emphasis will be placed on the behavior of states, entities and individuals to see how the rules that control the behavior of different entities are developed.
In its “White Paper” on the future of the European Union, the European Commission mentions only one ideological source for its further development – the Ventotene Manifesto, written in the spirit of Marxist ideology. Its authors assume the federalization of Europe, regardless of the will of the continent’s inhabitants.